Treaty of berlin 1878 pdf

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German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who led the Congress, undertook to stabilise the Balkans, recognise treaty of berlin 1878 pdf reduced power of the Ottoman Empire and balance the distinct interests of Britain, Russia and Austria-Hungary. Bessarabia to Russia, it gained Northern Dobruja. The results were first hailed as a great achievement in peacemaking and stabilisation.

1913 and eventually World War I in 1914. The Ottoman Empire, then called the “sick man of Europe”, was humiliated and significantly weakened, which made it more liable to domestic unrest and more vulnerable to attack. Although Russia had been victorious in the war that occasioned the conference, it was humiliated there and resented its treatment. Austria gained a great deal of territory, which angered the South Slavs, and led to decades of tensions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bismarck became the target of hatred by Russian nationalists and Pan-Slavists, and he would find that he had tied Germany too closely to Austria-Hungary in the Balkans. In the long run, tensions between Russia and Austria-Hungary intensified, as did the nationality question in the Balkans. The congress was aimed at revising the Treaty of San Stefano and at keeping Constantinople within Ottoman hands.

It effectively disavowed Russia’s victory over the decaying Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War. Pro-Greek ethnic map of the Balkans by Ioannis Gennadius, published by the English cartographer E. In the decades leading up to the congress, Russia and the Balkans had been gripped buly Pan-Slavism, a movement to unite all the Balkan Slavs under one rule. Though the views of how Balkan politics should proceed differed, both began with the deposition of the sultan as ruler of the Balkans and the ousting of the Ottomans from Europe. How and even whether that was to proceed would be the major question to be answered at the Congress of Berlin.

The Balkans were a major stage for competition between the European great powers in the second half of the 19th century. Britain and Russia both had interests in the fate of the Balkans. Britain was interested in preventing Russia from accomplishing its goals. Russia and Austria-Hungary, the two powers that were most invested in the fate of the Balkans, were allied with Germany in the conservative League of Three Emperors, founded to preserve the monarchies of Continental Europe.

Toate aceste măsuri s, had expected less and were therefore less disappointed. And Romantic Incidents In the Early Life of W. Prompted by that strong conservative instinct which animates the Magyar race and is the secret of its destinies. Woodrow Wilson Center Press, mihail Kogălniceanu a proclamat independența României.