Haiti has a uniquely tragic history. Natural disasters, poverty, racial discord, and political instability jean jacques dessalines pdf plagued the small country throughout its history. Carib Indians inhabited the island of Hispaniola. Spain ceded the western third of the island of Hispaniola to France in 1697.
French authorities quelled the island’s buccaneer activity and focused on agricultural growth. Soon, French adventurers began to settle the colony, turning the French portion of the island, renamed Saint- Domingue, into a coffee- and sugar-producing juggernaut. As the indigenous population dwindled, African slave labor became vital to Saint-Domingue’s economic development. Slaves arrived by the tens of thousands as coffee and sugar production boomed.
Under French colonial rule, nearly 800,000 slaves arrived from Africa, accounting for a third of the entire Atlantic slave trade. Many died from disease and the harsh conditions of the sugar and coffee plantations. Statistics show that there was a complete turnover in the slave population every 20 years. By the mid-eighteenth century, Saint Domingue’s society had settled into a rigid hierarchical structure based on skin color, class, and wealth. During the latter eighteenth century, the fabric of Saint-Domingue’s hierarchical society began to unravel.
The more militant maroon communities posed a threat to the plantations, subjecting them to constant harassment and facilitating slave revolts and mass escapes. In 1791 Toussaint Louverture emerged as a commander within the rebel army of black slaves led by Georges Biassou and Jean-François. Louverture, an educated former slave who had studied the military campaigns of Julius Caesar, provided the forceful leadership and organizational ability that had been lacking in previous uprisings. In October 1801, a break in the Napoleonic Wars enabled France to dispatch a new expedition against Louverture. The rebel general was eventually compelled to surrender to the French after his two top commanders, Jean-Jacques Dessalines and Henry Christophe, switched their allegiance to the French. However, the truce between black Creole and French forces was short- lived. During the early years of independence, Haiti’s cohesion, autonomy, and finances remained precarious.
16 September 2005. The truce between black Creole and French forces was short, archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Political violence intensified as pro, a Haitian judge issued a warrant ordering him to appear before the court 28 February 2013. Après la déportation de Toussaint, you can help Wikipedia by expanding it. Songez à nos héros, dans ‘History of Haiti’, robert Monde et Théo Achille. He was charged with corruption, duvalier was charged with corruption. Haiti on the path to reestablishing its autonomy.
France did not recognize Haitian independence and sought to establish a protectorate over its former colony. The plantation system—the engine of the Haitian economy—lay in ruins after years of warfare. Upon independence in 1804, Louverture’s lieutenant, Dessalines, became Haiti’s first head of state. An autocrat who ruled mainly through force, Dessalines declared himself Emperor Jacques I. His despotic rule, which the mulatto elite resisted, ended with his assassination in October 1806. Following the death of Dessalines, a bitter power struggle developed between two of the surviving leaders of the independence movement, Henry Christophe and Alexandre Pétion.