Although the term first appeared in a 1964 paper by Michael Beldoch, it gained popularity in the 1995 book by that title, written by the author, and science journalist Daniel Goleman. There are currently several models of EI. Goleman’s emotional stability scale pdf model may now be considered a mixed model that combines what have subsequently been modeled separately as ability EI and trait EI. Goleman defined EI as the array of skills and characteristics that drive leaderships performance.
The trait model was developed by Konstantin Vasily Petrides in 2001. Criticisms have centered on whether EI is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality traits. The term “emotional intelligence” seems first to have appeared in a 1964 paper by Michael Beldoch, and in the 1966 paper by B. Leuner entitled Emotional intelligence and emancipation which appeared in the psychotherapeutic journal: Practice of child psychology and child psychiatry.
In 1983, Howard Gardner’s Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea that traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability. The term subsequently appeared in Wayne Payne’s doctoral thesis, A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence from 1985. Keith Beasley in 1987 in the British Mensa magazine. In 1989 Stanley Greenspan put forward a model to describe EI, followed by another by Peter Salovey and John Mayer published in the following year. It is to this book’s best-selling status that the term can attribute its popularity.
The distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence was introduced in 2000. Emotional intelligence can be defined as the ability to monitor one’s own and other people’s emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. Different models of EI have led to the development of various instruments for the assessment of the construct. While some of these measures may overlap, most researchers agree that they tap different constructs. Specific ability models address the ways in which emotions facilitate thought and understanding.
A person who is more responsive emotionally to crucial issues will attend to the more crucial aspects of his or her life. Salovey and Mayer’s conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. The ability-based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make sense of and navigate the social environment. The model proposes that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible. The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand. For example, understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time.
Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to achieve intended goals. The ability EI model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and predictive validity in the workplace. However, in terms of construct validity, ability EI tests have great advantage over self-report scales of EI because they compare individual maximal performance to standard performance scales and do not rely on individuals’ endorsement of descriptive statements about themselves. Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires attunement to social norms. Although promoted as an ability test, the MSCEIT is unlike standard IQ tests in that its items do not have objectively correct responses.