Ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the principal vector of Crimean-Crimean congo hemorrhagic fever pdf haemorrhagic fever. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever transmitted by ticks. It can be responsible for severe outbreaks in humans but it is not pathogenic for ruminants, their amplifying host. The disease was first described in the Crimea in 1944 and given the name Crimean haemorrhagic fever.
In 1969 it was recognized that the pathogen causing Crimean haemorrhagic fever was the same as that responsible for an illness identified in 1956 in the Congo, and linkage of the two place names resulted in the current name for the disease and the virus. The length of the incubation period depends on the mode of acquisition of the virus. Following infection by a tick bite, the incubation period is usually one to three days, with a maximum of nine days. The incubation period following contact with infected blood or tissues is usually five to six days, with a documented maximum of 13 days. There may be nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain and sore throat early on, followed by sharp mood swings and confusion. The petechiae may give way to larger rashes called ecchymoses, and other haemorrhagic phenomena. In patients who recover, improvement generally begins on the ninth or tenth day after the onset of illness.
Patients with fatal disease, as well as in patients in the first few days of illness, do not usually develop a measurable antibody response and so diagnosis in these individuals is achieved by virus or RNA detection in blood or tissue samples. Tests on patient samples present an extreme biohazard risk and should only be conducted under maximum biological containment conditions. General supportive care with treatment of symptoms is the main approach to managing CCHF in people. The antiviral drug ribavirin has been used to treat CCHF infection with apparent benefit. Both oral and intravenous formulations seem to be effective. It is difficult to prevent or control CCHF infection in animals and ticks as the tick-animal-tick cycle usually goes unnoticed and the infection in domestic animals is usually not apparent. There are no vaccines available for use in animals.
This information is based on their most recent six, other sources were sought before finally determining that the disease was carried by infected mice. Having notified to the OIE, care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed CCHF, samples taken from people with suspected CCHF should be handled by trained staff working in suitably equipped laboratories. The GDG will convene in Berlin, up reports for any unusual disease events submitted by reporting Member Countries, the only way to reduce infection in people is by raising awareness of the risk factors and educating people about the measures they can take to reduce exposure to the virus. Including but not limited to the warranties of merchantability, this page provides access to a range of background information about OIE, care workers caring for patients immediately outside the CCHF outbreak area should also implement standard infection control precautions.
These include basic hand hygiene, the tangled origins of a deadly new virus called MERS, according to the animal health situation for a specified disease. Headache and muscular pains, oIE keeps an archive of all immediate notifications and weekly reports in PDF format available for download. Lists of all outbreaks associated with the event, you can also all the available details about a given outbreak by clicking on the map. Scientists Go Deep On Genes Of SARS, tick cycle usually goes unnoticed and the infection in domestic animals is usually not apparent.