This article is about the history and development of the motion picture. For the medium itself, see Photographic film. Cinema for french conversation pdf” and “Moving picture” redirect here.
Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, made by Eadweard Muybridge in 1878, is sometimes cited as the earliest film. A film, also called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. See the glossary of motion picture terms. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession.
The process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word “cinema”, short for cinematography, is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and then shown through a movie projector onto a large screen. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. The individual images that make up a film are called frames.
A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world’s earliest surviving film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888. The Berlin Wintergarten theatre was the site of the first cinema ever, with a short film presented by the Skladanowsky brothers on 1 November 1895. The magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides. The use of sequences of photographs in such devices was initially limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were actually moving.
French brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière with ten of their own productions. The earliest films were simply one static shot that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I, while the film industry in the United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood, typified most prominently by the innovative work of D. In the 1920s, the development of electronic sound recording technologies made it practical to incorporate a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen.
Another major technological development was the introduction of “natural color,” which meant color that was photographically recorded from nature rather than added to black-and-white prints by hand-coloring, stencil-coloring or other arbitrary procedures, although the earliest processes typically yielded colors which were far from “natural” in appearance. In the early 1950s, the proliferation of black-and-white television started seriously depressing North American theater attendance. The decades following the decline of the studio system in the 1960s saw changes in the production and style of film. This 16 mm spring-wound Bolex “H16″ Reflex camera is a popular entry level camera used in film schools. Film theory” seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. The concept of film as an art-form began with Ricciotto Canudo’s The Birth of the Sixth Art. Film is considered to have its own language.